Monday, December 28, 2015
I have been working on a bill file for the past couple of months with our Weber County Clerk Rickie Hatch. In what may be a surprising breakthrough discovery for government, a new technological innovation may promise efficiency and cost savings to taxpayers. The bill proposes to allow property tax notices to be sent by email (pronounced [ee-mayl]) if taxpayers choose to receive notices via this method.
This bill also allows taxpayers to opt out and receive them via snail mail as well. Here is a copy of the bill:
If you have any legislative issues or concerns, don't hesitate to contact me...even by means of this mysterious new email technology.
Saturday, November 21, 2015
We just completed a last round of interim committee meetings before the General Session begins in January 2016. In this last round of meetings we discussed several potent subjects that are in the headlines and on the minds of the public. We also discussed several potential bills to be heard during the General Session. Here is a summary of items I thought were worth mentioning.
Power to the People
One bill that we heard in morning committee dealt with the public's ability to overturn legislation. The vehicle the public has to do this is called a public referendum. Currently, if the Legislature enacts a wildly unpopular law, the people can follow steps to initiate a public referendum which places the law on a ballot to be voted up or down directly by the people. If I recall correctly, the last law that this happened to was the Legislature's creation of school vouchers in 2007. The education community rallied and successfully overturned that law.
In the bill we heard, Representative Brian Greene wants to expand the referendum power so that it applies to cities, school boards, special service districts, and any other legislative body at the local level. I support his effort. The referendum power acts as a check against laws that may simply be too difficult to tolerate until the next election cycle where the elected officials can be replaced the law reversed through the normal course.
Unfortunately, it appears the bill sponsor did not speak with the cities, school boards, specials service districts and others that would be affected by enactment of this law. They showed up to testify at our committee that hey had just been made aware of the bill. With that in mind, I voted against the bill so that these entities were given a fair amount of time to review the policy and share their informed perspective. Had the bill received a unanimous vote at our committee, it would have been heard on the first day of the session with little debate. The few dissenting votes from our committee insure that the bill is heard at committee again and that all sides of the issues can be assessed before a vote. I look forward to supporting the bill (even if it is refined) when it gets to the Floor for a vote.
SB 54 - Scrambled Eggs Election Law and Ethics
Last month the Republican Caucus moved to support an option of making changes to SB54 to provide clarity to the signature gathering process and also clarify dates for filing for office. However, one of the provisions of the changes would permit "in-kind" campaign contributions to be made during the General Session. The law prohibits any type of contribution during the General Session currently.
I felt that this was a major setback (even if only in perception) to the public's confidence in our political system to run as ethically as possible. So, I had some constructive criticism while the bill was being presented. You can hear the dialogue at committee here where I voice my opinion. My more salient comments are around the 4:00 mark although the whole snippet is worth hearing:
Ultimately, a motion was made and the words allowing in-kind contributions were stricken from the bill by a slim margin. Yet, the bill passed the committee and will be heard early during the General Session. My complaint is not about "in-kind" contributions (typically services, like signature gathering, that are performed in lieu of cash donations) being performed during the General Session. My main concern is that the negotiation of those contributions during the Session creates clouds of doubt. It can create the situation where contributors are tempted to make promises to donate based the performance of the Legislator. We should never be having those kinds of conversations in such close proximity to voting.
Ultimately, I expect the language to be clarified so that the contributions are solicited, negotiated, and reported before and after the General Session but the services the contribution represents may be performed during the General Session.
Another topic we discussed in our Republican Caucus was the Syrian Refugee issue. In light of the Paris Massacre, doubt is being cast on the ability of our Federal Government to properly vet individuals coming from Syria to seek refuge in the United States. I have my own doubts. Many of us felt that Governor Herbert should publicly express concern over Syrian refugees coming to Utah to resettle until proper safe guards were put in place.
My view has always been that the Middle East needs to deal with problems in the Middle East. Many countries bordering Syria, including Turkey and Jordan, have refugee camps that provide housing and food for these people while the war is on going. I suggested that instead of spending our state tax dollars on resettling Syrians here, we should contribute those funds to the organizations managing the camps abroad. This would provide the humanitarian aid they need, while also providing for our immediate safety. It is not the responsibility of The West to guarantee a First World standard of living to the rest of the world. Yet, we can and should keep them from starving.
I believe we can be compassionate and common sensed about this issue.
Taxes, Taxes, Taxes
As Vice-Chair of the Revenue and Taxation Committee, I get to hear a lot of interesting discussion on topics related to tax policy.
One bill we discussed would prevent taxpayers from being overcharged when "centrally assessed" properties decrease in value and then increase again. Under current statute, the counties get to include any upper movement in value of these properties to the formula dictating taxes that you pay. The concept is difficult to detail here but the proposal is liked by stakeholders on both sides of the issue. Look for this bill to pass this next session.
Another significant bill we heard dealt with the way corporations elect to be taxed by the State. Depending on their business structure, they can chose between three different types of taxation. The bill proposal we heard offers the "Single Sales Factor" method to more companies. The effect is a tax decrease of up to $50 Million per year. This decrease would be a giant incentive to bring more companies here to Utah with their capital and jobs. It's a big proposal from Senator Howard Stephenson and we will see what happens with it in the General Session.
Shoot'em Up and Taken'em Down
After our meetings concluded at the Capitol, we were invited by the Attorney General's Office to visit their facility and view some of their training and tactical equipment. We heard from Sean Reyes how the AG's office is working with law enforcement agencies to help moderate the tone of police interactions with the public. A lot of this effort is due to the ongoing disgruntlement of minority communities in how they view their treatment by law enforcement.
We were also introduced to some fantastic tools that the AG's office hopes to use with local agencies to help train officers in de-escalating volatile situations while also honing their marksman skills in difficult circumstances. The tool they have for this an interactive video studio.
The scenario I faced involved active shooters at the local Megaplex Theater. The guns they gave us had real recoil and limited ammo. We had to shoot the shooters before they shot us or shot other civilians. It was stressful to say the least.
We were also shown the Internet Crimes Against Children mobile forensics lab. This elite team is tasked with catching perverts and abusers of children. We discussed the inroads that child pornography is making into society and the impact that it is having on the community. It is sad commentary to know that this is a real problem in our society. It is even worse to know that this problem is growing ever larger. Kudos to this elite team for their work in taking our most devious and dangerous predators out of circulation.
In summary, it was a busy but informative day. The Republican Caucus meets again in December to discuss issues coming up for the General Session.
Thursday, October 22, 2015
We held an open caucus meeting during Interim Session this month to discuss some new information regarding Utah's experience with the Affordable Care Act. One of the most revealing topics of conversation had to do with criticism the House has received for its stubbornness in not moving forward with the Governor's Medicaid Expansion plan as proposed.
One of the first arguments that is made by supporters of the plan and the media is that Utah is being penny wise and pound foolish by not expanding Medicaid. Their argument for the past two years has been that with the Federal Government "committing" to pay 90% of the costs of the program, we are losing out on tax money we are already paying to the Feds. They say we have been paying taxes and not getting anything back to show for it. Here are a few snippets from emails I received from supporters of Medicaid Expansion:
"By not expanding medicaid Utah can't access the healthcare the Utah taxpayers have already paid for during the last 2 years."
- Ms. Summers
" MR PETERSON, I'm not at all happy how you and the others voted on the Medicaid Expansion!! We elected you for the views of the people you represent, NOT on your views!! I do not need Medicaid but so many others do! You should all be ashamed of yourselves! Then you leave ALL that tax payer's money on the table!!"
- Ms. Phelps (emphasis added)
Surely, the public believes that there is a steep price to be paid to avoid entangling ourselves in an uncertain deal with the Federal Government. Supposedly, to reject expansion is to forfeit hundreds of millions of our tax dollars and consign us to watching our poor and disadvantaged die en mass. At least that is what advocates want you to believe. This inaccurate narrative has been pushed by the big-hearted but grossly misguided folks at the Utah Health Policy Project and Alliance for a Better Utah among others.
This tax dollar narrative has been particularly effective in provoking public sentiment. Yet, it is an outright lie. How so? Here are the facts;
As you can see, Utahns are paying $710 Million a year in taxes collected by the Federal Government related to the Affordable Care Act. That is a lot of money. However, contrary to the convenient narrative pushed by advocates for Medicaid Expansion, Utah is receiving $730 Million a year from the Federal Government to pay for subsidies, cost-sharing, CHIP and other coverage programs.
The truth is we actually receive MORE than we pay in tax dolloars! Whoa!
So, the next logical question is about how would Medicaid Expansion affect these dollars. Would we get more? Of course! But where would they come from? They would come from other states who had the ignominious distinction of having to pay more than they receive. Ironically, expanding Medicaid in Utah would put other states in the same situation that advocates are falsely claiming we are in today. Regrettably, beggar-thy-neighbor appears to be in vogue.
Bad data makes for bad policy. Lets stop the charade of telling taxpayers they are wasting their money if they don't submit to a massive entitlement expansion. It simply isn't true.
Meanwhile, we will be seeking other more sustainable solutions to help the truly disadvantaged in our state.
Tuesday, October 13, 2015
We met as a Republican Caucus recently to discuss the new Utah Access Plus plan to expand Medicaid in the state. With a gap existing in current Medicaid coverage, the Legislature has been toiling for years now to find an affordable and sustainable path to provide medical coverage for those living in the gap.
The gap mainly consists of single adults without children who live under 138% of the Federal Poverty Level. There are approximately 130,000 living in Utah without any form of insurance coverage in this gap currently.
In the 2015 General Session, a plan was proposed to use state tax revenue to pay for expanding Medicaid to cover these folks. It was called Healthy Utah and was estimated to cost $78 Million to fund. The House was very uncomfortable with aspects of this plan and proposed its own $40 Million version called Utah Cares. Healthy Utah failed in the House and Utah Cares failed in the Senate. The stalemate left the Governor, House Leadership, and Senate Leadership staring at each other and scratching their head. They went to work on a compromise and thus Utah Access Plus was born.
The main disagreement between parties on the other plans had largely to do with funding. The questions arose about how much, for how long and from whom? The unified message the legsslature heard from the medical industry who supported Healthy Utah was that the math was simple: Utah would get $9 in Federal tax money to pay for medical services for every $1 in Utah tax money we contributed. In their eyes, we were being foolish to turn down such a sweet deal. Obviously, they were biased because they would be the ones directly profiting from the infusion of Federal tax money.
So, House leadership begged the question: Why should Utah taxpayers be on the hook for funds that allow medical providers to profit substantially from federal tax dollars? Why don't medical providers contribute $1 and get $9. If the math is really as simple as it was being claimed, certainly the medical industry would clamor at the opportunity to reap that windfall profit at such little expense.
|Speaker Greg Hughes listens to a wheelchair-bound professional protester from Texas who interrupted a closed Republican Caucus meeting September 29, 2015|
Well, Utah Access Plus proposed to fund Medicaid Expansion under those terms. The medical industry would contribute $1 and get $9 back...or so it seemed. Interestingly, as soon as this proposal manifested itself, the medical industry immediately changed its tune. Suddenly, the $1 burden was simply too onerous to countenance and the Legislature was flooded with complaints from doctors and hospital administrators claiming the proposal was to risky and expensive.
Thus, we see a remarkable example of how moral hazard is created by the promise of getting other people's money with no personal risk or responsibility. In this case, the medical industry wanted all the profits for themselves and all the responsibility with the taxpayer. Who can blame them? It makes for great business. But, such policy is ultimately unfair and reckless.
So, this backstory brings us to today's vote on Utah Access Plus. I hope to articulate some of the details faced by the Legislature in dealing with this problem.
"Mother, May I" Politics
Medicaid expansion has happened in many other states. Utah has looked around and recognized that there are things we could do that would work in our state. There are best practices out there that make expansion feasible. However, the Federal government has seen to it that our ability to implement those are restricted. Utah has had to negotiate long and hard to get the Federal government to verbally agree to waivers of existing law in order to accommodate some sort of expansion. Unfortunately, all the best ideas are prohibited. Why? According to the National Director of Health and Human Services, "It's not the President's policy." At the Federal level, Medicaid expansion is seen as more of a political policy than it is a pragmatic and workable one. Let's also keep in mind that the folks we have been negotiating with in Washington D.C. will only be there for another 18 months or so. They don't have much skin in the game. They will be gone but we will still be here 10 years from now wondering what happened.
Cost Shift/Crowd Out
Medicaid brings with it a whole host of economic distortions. If a doctor bills your insurance $100, under his agreement with your insurance he will be paid $100. However, under Medicaid, your doctor is only paid $80 for the same bill. Your doctor has to live with the $20 loss. Since we live in a free country (for now) many doctors simply opt not to serve folks who are on Medicaid. It simply doesn't pay to serve them when there are other full paying customers out there. So, while it sounds great to offer Medicaid and tell a bunch of people they now have health coverage, the reality is that there won't be enough doctors out there to serve their needs. Also, the expansion population may also get put in front of existing Medicaid enrollees when it comes to service. This may unfairly bump those in need to the back of the line due to bureaucratic whim. Combined, these conditions make the Medicaid coverage promise a promise of false hope for many.
The other issue is that the doctors who do end up servicing Medicaid patients may make up for the short fall by charging their full paying customers for the difference. We call this process cost shifting. Under Medicaid expansion, regular customers will pay higher fees for service to make up for the losses that doctors incur by choosing to service an expanding pool of Medicaid patients. There really is no free lunch.
How Much? How Long? And From Whom?
The giant wild card in the Medicaid expansion debate is related to who pays what. The Federal government has "promised" Utah that it will cover 90% of the costs if we will just contribube 10%. In this case, our 10% contribution would mean supposedly $78 Million. If the state didn't raise taxes or charge the medical industry for this, where does the money come from? Well, it would come from cuts in higher education and pre-existing health and human service programs at the state level. Services would have to be cut somewhere to pay for Medicaid expansion.
Of course, this is assuming that the $78 Million projected figure is correct. In most other states, the estimates for costs have been woefully inadequate and the figures have been much higher than anticipated. Medicaid expansion is in effect writing a blank check. Once implemented, the state has no control over the costs. It is obligated to pay for whatever happens, whether its affordable or not.
The other assumption is that the Federal government will honor its "promise" to pay for 90% of the costs of the program. Of course, when our state leaders went to Washington D.C. to discuss this issue, they discovered that members of Congress are talking about reducing the Federal portion to just 70%. That would mean that Utah's obligation would triple to $240 Million overnight if that change were to occur. Uh oh! It is pretty difficult to commit to massive once-in-a-lifetime social entitlement programs when the funds are not guaranteed to be there the next year. With as precarious as our levels of national debt are right now, it would seem short sighted to believe that the payment obligations promised today would be maintained in the event of national fiscal hardship. Some may say that the payments would be made, which indeed they might, but they would be payments manufactured at the Treasury's printing press. Contributions may stay the same as costs rise due to inflation. Everyone would feel the deprivation this causes even if the money flowed as "promised".
In the end, the proposal was voted on by the Republican Caucus and received only 7 votes in favor and 56 against. I voted against the proposal. It is my view that the solutions to the Medicaid coverage gap are elusive at best and Medicaid expansion in general is a flawed idea. The market mechanisms that promote innovation, technological progress, and price discovery are missing in the medical market. Government insurance mandates now cloud the freedom of choice that allows for competition and price reductions that benefit consumers. The Affordable Care Act has done nothing to decrease the cost of healthcare. In fact, it has done the opposite by injecting billions of dollars arbitrarily into the insurance markets. This money infusion has distorted even further the true cost of healthcare.
One man's waste is another man's profit. In light of our vote on Utah Access Plus, I look forward to discussing solutions that limit taxpayer exposure, contribute to a real reduction in cost of healthcare services, and promote free choice and price discovery in the medical services market. Meanwhile, it behooves us to cease chasing the illusion of sustainable Medicaid expansion in Utah.
Monday, September 21, 2015
The legislature recently returned from a bus tour to southern Utah as part of its interim legislative session. The experience was a 2-day affair and something new for many legislators. The last off-campus tour during interim was in 2008.
Our journey began at the Capitol building at 7am Wednesday morning. Fortunately, spouses were able to attend and I invited my wife to accompany me on our trip. I paid for her travel expenses.
Of course, no bus trip would be complete without a few persuasive video presentations along the way. We were subjected to many.
Our first stop was in Price where we heard from Lt. Governor Cox and staff at USU-Eastern. We also heard from the owner of Bowie Resource Partners who recently purchased some failing coal mines in Carbon County. They have turned their operations around from being major money losers to now being profitable ventures.
We then got back on the bus and headed to Green River, Utah. Along the way, the mayor spoke to us about the state of the city and how things were fairing in his town of 950 people. When we arrived at Green River, we stopped at the local high school. We discovered that they have 105 students between grades 7 and 12. The staff often teach multiple subjects and the school has just a principle and a secretary for administration. The principle also plays the role of teacher.
With high teacher turnover and low student counts, the school can only provide the most basic needs and curriculum to its students. Students have to seek additional opportunities elsewhere. Unfortunately, the nearest elsewhere is about 90 minutes away. My hat goes off to these scrappy teachers as they make due in a difficult situation. They truly are working a labor of love.
After leaving Green River we visited Dead Horse Point.
En route to Dead Horse Point we had a member of the Grand County government on board to present to us. One of our colleagues didn't like some things this person had to say in a written statement earlier in the year. He called him out on it and suddenly there was a major disagreement between the two. The Q and A portion of our discussion came to an abrupt end.
After disembarking and walking around for a bit, the confrontation flared up again as members of the Grand County council had to contend with allegations they were opposed to mineral development in the area. It was certainly an interesting meeting.
Later we headed east along the Colorado River for a dinner event at the Red Cliffs Lodge.
The following morning we were given the option to walk around Arches National Park or float down the Colorado River for several hours. We opted to float the river. We witnessed all kinds of pent up legislative frustration spring forth into a series of boat drenchings as everyone took the opportunity to splash their colleagues. Years of grudges were settled (and perhaps some new ones created) on the river.
Later, we boarded the bus again and were on our way to our next stop. We entered Emery County and the fascinating San Rafael Swell region.
County officials were on hand to explain some of the unique problems they are experiencing. Emery county only has 11,000 people. The county is 1.8 million acres big and only 8% is privately owned. The rest is owned by the Federal government. With that, their communities live and die by regulations imposed by Washington D.C. For instance, many coal mines have shut down due to tighter regulations. There are many power plants in Southern Utah due to the easy availability of coal. Yet, many of these plants have shut down due to ever increasing environmental standards. In many cases, these power plants employed significant portions of the communities. They have suffered under the burden of ever-increasing Federal regulations.
After stopping for a break in Castledale, we embarked up Huntington Canyon and over into Sanpete County. We discovered that there is a heated and ongoing water feud between Carbon and Sanpete county going back to the 1940's. One county feels they have been jilted by the other and is seeking legislative intervention to settle the matter.
After having a fantastic turkey dinner at the Fairview dance hall, we drove back to the Capitol and arrived in SLC around 9:30pm.
It was a whirlwind tour. Yet, I appreciated seeing the side of Utah that is often in the background of public debates. With such a small population, it is often difficult for our rural friends to be heard at the Capitol. I believe this trip really opened the eyes of the legislature to the issues of rural Utah and how our decisions at the Capitol are affecting them. The trip was definitely a great experience and worth the time invested in learning about these complicated yet important issues.
Wednesday, August 19, 2015
Today I voted to move the ailing Draper prison to a new site in Salt Lake City. Critics of the move have cited costs and implied cronyism in liquidating state owned property. Lets clear the air on the facts of the situation.
The effort to understand the best interest of the taxpayer in moving the prison has been ongoing for the past four years. When the original proposal to sell the prison site came up in 2011, the process dictated by the laws only allowed for a 90-day request-for-proposal from contractors. With such a large site and important impacts for Utah moving forward, the Legislature decided to create a Commission to study the issue and make sure the State was making the wisest choice possible. This commission was called the Prison Relocation and Development Authority (PRADA).
|Rep. Brad Wilson presents the resolution to move the Draper prison to Salt Lake City|
PRADA was tasked with contracting with architects, geologists, and other specialists in analyzing all the impacts associated with rebuilding or moving the Draper prison. The study was exhaustive. Two years ago, after preliminary reports came to the Legislature, we voted to move the prison to a future site which was to be determined. At that time there were about 50 sites being considered.
Ultimately, that long list was winnowed down to 5 sites. After final deliberation and analysis, the Salt Lake City site was chosen as the best long term value to the taxpayer when considering construction costs and operation costs over the 50 year life of the site.
Here is the information that helped inform my vote:
Passage of the bill was not without drama. Rep. Fred Cox attemped to substitute the bill with his own version that keeps the prison at the Draper site.
There was little support for that on the floor. Another substitute was offered to override Rep. Cox's substitute. The vote to override Rep. Cox's substitute passed with his being the only dissenting vote.
Debate on the bill was emotional and passionate. Ultimately the bill passed with a vote of 62-12.
Friday, August 14, 2015
The Utah Taxpayer Association recently published data on Utah's 41 school districts and how they spent tax dollars for the last fiscal year.
Here is their report:
There is some really interesting information in this report. I wanted to take a look at Ogden and Weber School Districts specifically to see how they compared to the state average. Here are some charts I created from the data:
Lets take a look at spending per student in various categories. Instruction costs are less in Ogden School District compared to Weber School District and the State Average. Yet, media costs are significantly more. Ogden SD has higher student support costs while Weber has higher student transport costs. Facility construction is extremely low for Ogden SD and high for Weber SD. Ogden SD also has much higher nutrition expenses.
These data sets aren't very surprising given that Ogden School District serves a very old urban center while Weber School District serves an area that is still growing in population and suburban sprawl. I believe the spike in media spending in Ogden SD may be representative of the technology focus on ESL and improved learning. Ogden SD has been involved in a very rigorous program focused on enhancing student achievement. You can read more about the results of that program.
Both Weber SD and Ogden SD pay higher than the average wage for teachers in Utah. Kudos to them for doing so.
Finally, here is the total spent per pupil. Weber School District mirrors the state average closely while Ogden School District spends significantly more.
A special thanks to the Taxpayer Association for gathering and publishing this data in a format that is comprehensible. For policymakers like myself, this is very helpful information.
Wednesday, June 17, 2015
With the passage of SB54, Utah's caucus/convention method of determining how candidates get placed on ballot was paired with a parallel method where candidates can be placed on the ballot through a petition effort. The changes are scheduled to take affect in 2016.
The question then is what happens when you have more than two candidates on a ballot and the winning candidate receives less than a majority of the vote (aka a plurality)? Interestingly, 36 of the states in the U.S. have a plurality system in place and have no other process or mechanism for making sure the winning candidate receives a majority of the vote. Yet, 14 other states do require a majority vote to win an election.
The question facing the Legislature this year is multi-faceted:
1. Do we want to require a majority vote for a candidate to win an election? Or are we fine with a candidate receiving less than a majority?
2. If we want a majority winner, what method would be best to make that happen?
Our interim committee looked at several prospective methods used by other states to determine a winner in a case of plurality winners. One option includes a run-off election held between the top two candidates in the primary election. Another option includes a 'ranked' voting system where voters prioritize multiple candidates. A third, less appealing, option includes kicking a plurality result from the primary race back to the parties to determine a winner.
'Ranked' voting, often called Preferential Voting was one of the for fascinating options. Here is a video that explains how it works in Australia:
Saturday, June 6, 2015
In light of the anniversary of D-Day, my attention was drawn to this captivating video that illustrates the human costs of World War II. There is a reason the men and women who sacrificed in that epic war effort are called The Greatest Generation. The world was in an existential fight for survival against tyrannical conquest. As illustrated by this sobering and compelling video, there were many who did not live to see victory.
May we remember those who fought for freedom and the ultimate costs of its preservation.
Thursday, June 4, 2015
There has been a great deal of hyperventilation and consternation regarding the relocation of the Utah State Prison from Draper to one of four possible sites. Most of the criticism, if not all, is of the Not-In-My-Back-Yard variety. Along with these heated feelings come myth and misinformation in an attempt to rationally support an emotional sentiment.
The best policies are based in fact. The best policymakers seek these facts in order to inform their decisions. So, to help inform the public debate and continue a transparent and lively discussion on the future site of the Utah State Prison, here is a fact sheet that will help answer some of the most commonly asked questions.
If you have any other questions you would like answered, let me know. If this isn't enough for you and you want to dive deeper into the issue, I recommend you review Why Move The Draper Prison?
In the meantime, I look forward to a thoughtful discussion on the selection of the final site for the new prison. Combined with our recent legislative action implementing significant corrections reforms, we should begin to experience better outcomes from our corrections system.
Sunday, May 17, 2015
|Overlooking the Danube River and Parliament from the Presidential Palace.|
I recently returned from a trip abroad hosted by the American Council of Young Political Leaders. It is a State Department funded program that promotes international understanding and the exchange of ideas among the rising generation of political figures. For our exchange, a significant portion of our trip was spent in Hungary, known as Magyar, in the local tongue.
A 1000 Year Summary of Hungarian History
Hungary is a nation with a long and proud history. The Magyar tribe conquered and settled the Carpathian basin around 896 AD. The pagan tribe acquiesced to Christianity under the zealous sword of its quick tempered leader Gejza in the 900's. Following Gejza's death, his son Stephen was coronated as the first monarch of Hungary on Christmas Day 1000 AD. In the 1200's, Mongols invaded the area and killed or deported as slaves one million Hungarians (1/3rd of the population). This experience lead to the widespread construction of stone castles for defense. In the 1500's, Ottoman Turks swept the country with 100,000 troops. Half of Hungary was defeated and dominated by the Turks for 150 years. Following the defeat, the other half of the country was absorbed into Habsburg dominions with Transylvania breaking off as an independent state.
|Overlooking the town center of Eger, Hungary from the top of Eger Castle.|
After the Turks were pushed out of the country, nearly all of Hungary was placed under rule of the Habsburgs. However, oppressive rule lead to an independence revolution in 1848 and ultimately lead to the a dual monarchy with Budapest becoming the second capitol of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. This event opened the door for the construction of the beautiful cityscape we see today in Budapest.
|Entering the Pest side of Budapest from Liberty Bridge.|
Hungary was an ally of Germany in World War I and their defeat meant the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It also meant the subdivision of its lands and the country was winnowed from a population of 20 million to a territory of just 8 million. This arbitrary map drawing means that millions of Hungarians today live outside of Hungary's borders in neighboring countries.
Hungary also allied with Germany in WWII but was occupied as an untrustworthy ally. German occupation in the last year of the war meant the extermination of most of it's Jewish population. However, unlike other European states where Jewry suffered complete extermination, there remains in Budapest an indigenous population of Jews that survived the war.
|Monuments memorializing the terror of Nazi and Communist occupation of Hungary.|
Following WWII, Russian tanks rolled into Hungary and occupied the country. The people rose up against communist cruelty in a 1956 revolution, but the revolution was crushed with brute force by the Soviets. Yet, out of necessity, the Soviets loosened their tight grip to give Hungarian more freedom than was experienced in other countries occupied by the Soviets. Ultimately, the anti-communist movement rose, the Soviet Union collapsed, and the last Russian soldier left Hungary in the early 1990s.
Today Hungary is a democracy populated by several political parties. The governing party is the Fidesz which is conservative in its ideology and is populated by the Founding Fathers of the post-communist era. We met with many Fidesz members of parliament and the ministers of the cabinet. We also met with the Socialist Party (old communists), the Christian Democrat People's Party (center-left), and a 'Green' Party member. The President of Hungary is a controversial figure who often makes remarks that offend the sensibilities of the European Union and United States.
|The Legislative Chamber of Parliament in Budapest.|
Given it's history, Hungary finds itself in a precarious position. A tiny country of 10 million people, it is unluckily situated between the aggressive Russian bear and the dominating German eagle. One of our hosts shared the adage: The Germans and the Russians kill each other; and when they are not, they kill everyone else. Such experience underscores all of Hungarian geopolitics in the region. They are in an existential struggle for survival in a dangerous world. This struggle means making some unlikely alliances. For instance, Hungary flirts with Russia because Russia controls 80% of its energy supply. It is compelled to interact with its former oppressor out of economic necessity. Such circumstances mean that its EU and US partners are not very satisfied with Hungary's positions in regards to Russia. While most Western Nations are boycotting or sanctioning current Russian aggression, Hungary has taken a less stern position.
Hungary also sees itself as a budding force in the region. In one of our conversations, it was explained to us that, outside of Germany, Europe seems to lack strong leadership from other countries. They also envision a new 'Middle Europe' that includes Hungary as a prominent voice. The terms 'Eastern' and 'Central' have become pejorative terms in European parlance. Thus, a rebranding of the region appears to be taking place as Hungary works to position itself in a place of strength.
|Symbolic Eagle and Gate at the Presidential Palace in Budapest.|
This quest for self-determination, independence, and relevance hearkens back to its conquest of the Carpathian valley, its overthrow of the Turks, its rebellion against the Habsburgs, and its revulsion against Soviet Communism.
This indomitable attitude also comes with a backdrop of strong nationalistic and patriarchal perspectives in Hungarian culture. Indeed, one of the local folks we met humorously quipped: "Welcome to our racist, xenophobic, chauvinistic country!" The Gypsie, or Roma, populations in Hungary are held in low esteem by ethnic Hungarians. High poverty and low education make this an entrenched class that requires enormous public resources. Currently the government is working on education efforts to break the cycle of poverty that has pervaded this group for decades. The ethnic Hungarians are resentful of the social woes afflicting the Gypsies but see no other humane way of dealing with the problem.
|Paintings commemorating the reconciliation between the Monarchy and Parliament.|
Unfortunately, when it comes to the role of women in society, Hungarian culture, in my opinion, has missed the mark. Women are treated as subservient to men in the public sphere. During one of our meetings with a top official, our host asked that the women in our delegation sit on either side of him while the men sat across from him at the table. The men of our delegation conversed with our host while the women in our delegation remained silent. From our delegation's perspective, it appeared our seating arrangement meant that our host intended to only discuss matters with the men while being adorned with women on either side.
The role of women is also illustrated in cultural icons. In the Presidential Palace there stands two female statues. On one side is the representation of an innocent virgin with her eyes downcast who is walking into the woods. On the other side is a the voluptuous representation of this girl emerged from the woods no longer a virgin but as a 'full' women.
Later, I inquired again as to the meaning since I thought something might have been lost in translation to English. I asked about the meaning of the girl emerging from the woods as a full woman. Did it mean that she had reached her child bearing years and represented the figure of potential motherhood and the future hope for Hungarian posterity? Or, was this simply the glorification of a woman loosing her virtue? My hosts clarified that it represented a woman being able to enjoy and provide for all the comforts that a grown woman can provide her male counterparts. In this case, apparently, as an object of sexual gratification and desire.
Such a symbolic perspective happens to show up in Hungarian demographics. With a birthrate among the lowest anywhere in the world, ethnic Hungarians' focus on sexual comfort over reproduction has put their population into decline. Without a change in course, in the next three decades there will be few Hungarians left to keep the lights on in the country.
|Hungarian Parliament building in Budapest.|
Nevertheless, this demographic reality combined with an ethos of independence may be spurring the Hungarians to stand up and fight against fading into oblivion. There is solidarity in the country for their expatriated countrymen in neighboring lands. They are very concerned about their border Ukraine and Russian aggression toward neighbors who were former members of the Soviet Union. Since every crises brings opportunity, the Hungarians seem to view current world events as their moment to assert their voice and rise as a regional power. Their current President often expresses strong nationalistic rhetoric with visions of a resurgent Hungary. A people with an eye toward the future have hope. A people with hope in the future have children.
Whether Hungary is successful in its effort to obtain and project regional power remains to be seen. In the meantime, expect more geopolitical intrigue as Russian aggression becomes more blatant and Hungarian resolve intensifies. The stakes are high for this small but potent country. If it plays its diplomatic cards right, and also starts breeding, it may just achieve what it is seeking.
Wednesday, March 25, 2015
The Legislature in this most recent session dealt with some very weighty and substantial issues. Interestingly, now that I am home, the one I hear about most is the Legislature's passage of SB296 which added legal protections to housing and employment law for the LGBT community.
When Amendment 3 to Utah's Constitution was overturned by a Federal Judge to allow for same-sex marriages to begin in the state, I wrote an editorial in the Standard Examiner explaining why I believed such a change in policy portended confusion for our legal system. The response I received from a vocal minority was swift and vitriolic. I was blasted as a bigot, as ignorant, or as the deceived believer in some imaginary divine being. The pointed attacks highlighted the consequences of a polarizing culture war that has been waged in our country since the sexual revolution of the 1960's.
In this culture war, we have seen the traditional values that have dictated family governance and creation redefined. We have witnessed the inversion of traditional gender roles, the view of children as liabilities instead of assets, and the devaluation of marriage as a meaningful institution. In the most recent cultural battles, we have seen the push to equate same-sex relationships with those of heterosexual ones.
A significant proportion of Utah's population, like myself, belongs to the LDS faith which has historically been very conservative in its views toward traditional marriage and same-sex issues. It seems perplexing to many that a faith which champions traditional family values would suddenly join arms with those in the LGBT camp to support a broad and seismic policy shift which on the surface seems to fly in the face of the traditional values it has supported. So with these concerns in mind, let me share with you my experience and understanding dealing with church lobbyists, my own faith, and with the policy found in SB296 itself.
There were rumors on the Hill that a "deal" had been struck between the LDS Church and the LGBT community around the first few days of March. On March 4th, a hasty press conference was called and L. Tom Perry along with D. Todd Christofferson, Apostles in the LDS Church, explicitly announced the Church's support of SB296. Troy Williams, President of Equality Utah, was also present and announced his organization's support. Meanwhile, House and Senate leadership and bill sponsors lined the wall behind the podium in support.
Interestingly, it wasn't until after the press conference that the words of the bill were released to the Legislature to read. What I read I found quite dismaying. The new definitions for "sexual orientation" and "gender identity" actually seemed to undefine them. My immediate concern was that this would lead to litigation and more hand-wringing in the courts over tortured definitions. Yet, also included in the bill were sweeping exemptions for religious institutions and their affiliates. It was clear which parties were at the negotiating table when the bill was crafted. I wondered what this meant for everyone else and questioned the necessity of such measures.
I polled the House Floor the day following the news conference to get a feel for where the bill sat in the minds of my colleagues. At that time, 44 supported the bill, 14 were opposed (which included myself) and 16 were undecided. The House had not been involved in any major discussions on this issue and none seemed to be on the horizon at that time. So, I rounded up a half dozen of my colleagues who had questions and scheduled a meeting with the pair of church lobbyists that visit the Hill periodically.
Our meeting was very frank. We each took turns asking questions about the substance of the bill and its implications. The official answer was "The Church doctrine on moral conduct has not changed. But, the Church supports this bill and supports the principle of civic non-discrimination in housing and employment." Near the end of our meeting, there was also an allusion to the fact that they believed this was the right bill at the right time and that they thought the culture wars would only get worse with time. Yet, after an hour of serious discussion and questioning, I didn't come away from the meeting feeling much better. That weekend I wrote my floor speech in opposition to the bill.
The bill then passed the Senate and a House standing committee early the following week. On March 11 the bill was ready to be debated on the House Floor. Early that morning, several of us met at an open Conservative Caucus meeting with a Senate sponsor of the bill. After listening to praises of the bill, I asked the sponsor very directly: "Why this bill? Why now?" These questions received a very intriguing response.
The Senator felt that the bill is just a piece on a bigger legal chessboard. At the U.S. Supreme Court right now is a case on same-sex marriage that will determine whether it becomes legal across the United States. According to the Senate sponsor, he believes there is a high likelihood that same-sex marriage will be made the law of the land. The Court's ruling is to be announced in June. If same-sex marriage is made the law of the land for all states, it is believed that the next legal move for LGBT activists will be to push for non-discrimination legislation in all 50 states. The effort would likely be advanced through litigation in the courts just as the marriage agenda was advanced through the courts. The Senate sponsor also indicated that he believes that the activist's efforts would likely succeed. If they did, then non-discrimination laws would be forced upon the states through judicial decree without the input of the Legislature and room for negotiation.
So, with this unsavory legal scenario in mind, the bill sponsors felt that SB296 created enough religious exemptions that it was worth enacting non-discrimination policy now rather than having to roll the dice later on a court decree that likely wouldn't allow religious exemptions. In essence, this bill attempts to back burn the front lines of a forest fire before the fire overruns and consumes all the forest.
While the explanation was illuminating, I was still unpersuaded by this argument. I spoke against the bill on the House Floor that evening because the process wasn't given proper time to work, I didn't like the vague definitions, and I am opposed to needlessly carving out new protected classes in our laws. Nevertheless, the bill passed 65-10 and the Governor signed it the following day.
Ultimately, we will find out if this legal maneuvering will pay off. The Court will rule in June on nationwide same-sex marriage. Then watch to see how the issue of anti-discrimination is pursued in the various states. Interestingly, even if we do have SB296 for now, there is nothing that would stop a Federal Judge from overturning it if he felt compelled to do so. If a Federal Judge can overturn a Constitutional Amendment that was voted into law by the direct will of the people, then overturning a nuisance bill with religious exemptions shouldn't be that difficult either.
In summary, it appears the bills sponsors felt SB296 was better for religious freedoms than risking a tsunami of unfriendly court decrees coming in the future. If they are correct, I pray for our future.
Sunday, March 15, 2015
The sprint to the finish of this year's Session was full of drama and high stakes negotiations.
Vaping, Prostitutes, and Cock Fighting
|Sen. Gene Davis presents his bill enhancing penalties for cock fighting.|
Medicaid Expansion Drama
The debate over whether to enact Healthy Utah as the Governor and Senate wanted, or to enact a more sustainable model like Utah Cares as the House proposed, could not be resolved in the time we had in the session.
|Majority Leader Jim Dunnigan spars with Minority Leader Brian King and Rep. Rebecca Chaves-Houck on Medicaid Expansion policy.|
But that doesn't mean it was a milktoast debate. On the evening of March 5th, the minority party attempted to lift the failed Healthy Utah bill from the committee which voted it down and place it on the Floor for debate. Such a motion could only be successful with majority approval of the body. The motion failed but the minority party was able to put pressure on majority party colleagues by placing them on the record with their vote. Many of these folks are in swing districts. Obviously, the majority didn't appreciate this political flanking.
|The votes on the motion to lift the dead Healthy Utah bill from committee to the Floor for debate.|
The budget this year was a bumper crop of sorts. We were able to fund education with a 4% increase in the weighted pupil unit (WPU), which is the highest increase that has been made to education funding since 2008. The Education Appropriations Chairman said,"This news comes with a congratulations...and a warning", alluding to the seasonal cycle of the economy and tax revenues and what happened after 2008.
However, the brisk funding increase didn't stop a massive protest at the Capitol demanding more funding.
|Utah Teacher's Union fills the Capitol to demand even more money after Legislature funds biggest increase in education spending in 7 years.|
The biggest social issue bill to hit the Legislature in years worked its way quickly through the Senate and the House Judiciary Committee. The bill makes sexual orientation and gender identity a protected class in regards to housing and employment. I felt the bill was unnecessary from a housing perspective. I also protested the way in which this weighty of an issue was worked so quickly through the process. You can watch my floor speech regarding this subject below:
The Senate bill sponsors, Stuart Adams and Steve Urqhardt, are standing behind me during this debate. The bill passed 65-10 (I voted against), was signed by the Governor the following evening, and is now the law of the land.
Mr. Peterson's Results
This year was a successful legislative season. All four bills that I ran passed scrutiny and are on their way to the Governor's desk for a signature. I also was also able to persuade our committee to fund Unit Reduction in Ogden's historic neighborhoods. This will go a long way toward helping Ogden catch up to the rest of the state in the way of economic development. The state will be funding the program with $750,000 of grant money this year.
End of the Session
I was able to have my wife join me for the last hours of the Session. Our work was completed at midnight. The Governor came to speak to us and then we were able to unwind for a half hour with some comedy schtick.
Rep. Ed Redd and I sang a parody version of the Beatles tune Life Goes On. Here are the lyrics that got the crowd laughing:
Dixon’s bill gives bodies to cadaver dogs.But only if they're someone no one missed.But before the Governor will sign the billHe wants to add Greg Hughes name to the list.Chorus:O Brad Dee O Brad Daw Life Goes On, Daw!O Brad Dee Daw Life Goes OnO Brad Dee O Brad Daw Life Goes On, Daw!O Brad Dee Daw Life Goes OnThurston ain't afraid to mess with Edward's billsTo make a change or even substituteShe don't know what she did to deserve all thisShe's tried so hard to make us not pollute.Arent demands action and the answers toWhy voters do not show up when they shouldLet’s face it, we know voters simply do not careUnless you tell them that they cannot burn their woodMcKay is learning to win over hearts and mindsSo he can get the votes to pass his billsBut then he spars with our ParliamentarianAnd we cast in all our 'NO' votes for the kill.Miller likes to taunt the House MajorityHe thinks that Healthy Utah is so coolWe all hope that next year he will understandWhen all of his great bills are held in Rules.Coleman wants to fill the streets with Tesla carsJohnny pouts because they don't use gasThe Senate does not like our rowdy attitudeVan Tassel'd love to come and kick us in the _(awkward silence)_.
It was a great session. I look forward to working on more issues facing our State over the summer.
Thursday, March 5, 2015
We are in the final stretch of the session with only five working days left. Tensions are high and events are happening quickly.
Hot Topic - Corrections Reform
|Rep. Eric Hutchings presents his reform proposal to Majority Caucus|
Hot Topic - Gas Tax
The House's version of a gas tax bill passed our Revenue and Taxation Committee. I voted no. The proposal takes our 24.5 cent fixed tax and replaces it with a 24.5 cent tax that is calibrated as a percentage of $1.75 per gallon. If the wholesale price of a gallon of gas rises above that amount the tax would rise accordingly as a fixed percentage of that higher price. It is effectively a sales tax with some ceilings and floors on the tax amount. The Senate passed a version of the gas tax that calls for a flat 10 cent increase in the current tax.
We expect that the House Gas Tax and the Senate Gas Tax will be morphed together to produce some hybrid bill before it is finally consideration for a vote on the floor. We will see what comes to us for final review.
Hot Topic - Religious Protection/LGBT Non-Discrimination
|L. Tom Perry speaks at LGBT non-discrimination press conference.|
Hot Topic - Healthy Utah vs. Utah Cares
|Healthy Utah is presented to committee. Bill failed 4-9|
Fortunately, the House has another plan ready, known as Utah Cares, that will cover individuals up to 100% of the Federal Poverty Level and will use the Primary Care Network to help meet basic medical needs. Utahns will have a bigger financial stake in the program and thus Utah will have greater flexibility with how the program is administered. The program utilizes more local funding and more local control. It is truly a Utah solution to providing access to healthcare for our disadvantaged population.
Mr. Peterson's Bills
HB127 - Tax Increments Amendments
I presented my tax increment bill to the House Floor. Here is video. The bill gets off to an awkward start:
SB203 - Immigrant Consultants Amendments
Senator Escamilla asked me to sponsor this bill on the House Floor since we worked together on this subject back in 2012. I was even able to plug Weber State University in the intro:
Lincoln Day Dinner
Governor Herbert and Lt. Governor Spencer Cox showed up to our Weber County Republican Lincoln Day Dinner. Glad to see them make the trip up to our neck of the woods.
The Bow Tie Caucus
Of course, it wouldn't be right to go without participating in our annual bow tie day at the Hill.
In final thoughts, it is important for Utahns to be informed on the issues and be in communication with their representatives. Due to time constraints, this will likely be the last update before the session is finished next week. If you have any issue or concern on your mind, please CONTACT ME, and let me know your thoughts. The events at the Capitol do cast a shadow over the rest of the State. Lets keep government accountable and responsive.